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广东成人学位英语语法—— 各种从句

广东省成考中心 2021-11-03

  英语中从句包括:名词从句、定语从句、同位语从句和状语从句。

  一、名词从句包括主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句。

  (一)主语从句

  考试重点:主语从句常用的连词的用法;it is desirable that引导的主语从句的用法。

  在句子中担当主语的是一个从句,这个从句就叫主语从句。主语从句可以由下列连词、连接代词和连接副词引导,且不能省略。

  连词:that,whether

  连接代词:what,whatever,who,whoever等。

  连接副词:when,where,how,why

  1、由连词that,whether引导的主语从句。

  连词that,whether在主语从句中的作用只是引导主语从句,它在从句中不担任成分,不能省略,且由它们引导的主语从句,多用it做形式主语。

  (1)_____ was unimportant.

  A. Whether he enjoyed our dinner or not

  B. No matter how he enjoyed our dinner

  C. If he enjoyed our dinner

  D. What he enjoyed our dinner

  (答案:A)

  (2)That the earth is round is true.(It is true that the earth is round.)

  地球是圆的, 是个事实。

  2、由连接代词和连接副词引导的主语从句

  它们分别在从句中担任主语、宾语和状语,不能省略。注意翻译时不能把它们译为疑问句。由它们引导的主语从句,也可以用形式主语it引导。

  (1)Who let out the news remained unknown.(It remained unknown who let out the news.)

  谁泄露了那个消息仍旧无人知道。

  (2)When we’ll start is not clear.(It is not clear when we’ll start.)

  我们何时出发还不清楚。

  3、以关系代词what, whatever, whoever…引导的主语从句。

  What有时可以用来表示the thing which这种意思,引导从句,表示一样东西或一件事情。Who,whom,which,what,可以和ever构成合成词,和what一样引导从句,ever起强调作用。此类句子不能用形式主语it引导,它们在句子中担任成份,不能省略,语序为陈述句的语序。

  (1)_____ I saw was two men crossing the street.

  A. What

  B. Whom

  C. Who

  D. That

  (答案:A)

  (2)_____ was not the way the event happened.

  A. Which the press reported

  B. That the press reported

  C. what did the press report

  D. What the press reported

  (答案:D。主语从句,what在从句中做宾语。)

  4、句型It is desirable (suggested, necessary, requested, ordered, proposed, urgent)+that+主语+should(可省略)+V(动词原形)。

  (1)It’s urgent that a meeting _____ before the final decision is made.

  A. will be arranged

  B. must be arranged

  C. be arranged

  D. would be arranged

  (答案:C)

  (2)It is highly desirable that a new president _____ for this university.

  A. is appointed

  B. will be appointed

  C. be appointed

  D. has been appointed

  (答案:C)

  (二)表语从句

  考试重点:表语从句的基本用法;含有suggestion,proposal等词的表语从句的用法。

  1、在从句中做表语的从句叫表语从句。它位于主句中的系动词之后,常用的关联词和主语从句相同。

  (1)This is what he wants. 这就是他想要的东西。

  (2)The question is whether we can finish our work by tomorrow morning.

  问题是我们明天上午能否完成任务。

  2、用suggestion等词表示愿望、建议、命令等情绪时,用虚拟语气,从句中用should(可省略)+动词原形。

  (1)The general’s command was that the soldiers _____ their fort and carry out more important tasks.

  A. would leave

  B. leave

  C. left

  D. have left

  (答案:B)

  (2)His proposal is that they(should)challenge the other groups to a friendly competition.

  他提议他们和别的组挑战进行一场友谊竞赛。

  (三)宾语从句

  考试重点:宾语从句用陈述句的语序;介词后面的宾语从句;suggest,insist,order,demand等动词后接宾语从句时,用虚拟语气;if和whether的区别。

  1、宾语从句用陈述句的语序

  (1)Can you tell me _____ about the city that makes people love it so much?

  A. it is what

  B. what it is

  C. what is it

  D. is it what

  (答案:B。宾语从句用陈述句的语序。)

  (2)No one doubts _____ it is true.

  A. whether

  B. if

  C. that

  D. what

  (答案:C。I doubt whether/if…我怀疑。I don’t doubt that …我毫不怀疑。又如:I doubt whether he can speak English. 我怀疑他是否会说英语。)

  2、介词后面的宾语从句

  (1)The people at the party were worried about Janet because no one was aware _____ she had gone.

  A. where that

  B. of where

  C. of the place

  D. the place

  (答案: B。where 引导的从句做介词的宾语。)

  (2)He was a man of fine character in all points _____ he was rather timid.

  A. in that

  B. except that

  C. for that

  D. except for

  (答案:B)

  3、suggest,insist,order,demand等动词后作宾语时,表示欲望、建议、命令等时,用虚拟语气。

  ①His mother insisted that he _____ the coat when going out.

  A. put on

  B. puts on

  C. to put

  D. putting on

  (答案:A)

  ②The doctor advised that Mr. Malan _____ an operation right away so as to save his life.

  A. had

  B. would have

  C. have

  D. was going to have

  (答案:C)

  4、在下列情况下不能用if , 而用whether。

  后跟不定式:He didn’t tell me whether to go or stay. 他没有告诉我是走还是留下。

  前面有介词:He raised the question of whether we could find the necessary money.

  他提出我们能否筹集到必要的资金这个问题。

  引导主语从句:Whether they win or lose is all the same to me.

  他们胜利也好,失败也好,对我来说都是一样的。

  后面直接跟or not:I wonder whether I’ll catch the last bus or not.

  我不知道我能否赶上末班车。

  二、定语从句

  考试重点:限定性定语从句中关系代词的用法;关系副词 when,where,why,引导的定语从句;带介词的定语从句;非限定性定语从句;“名词(代词)+介词+关系代词”引出,一般是非限定性定语从句。

  在复合句中起定语作用的从句叫做定语从句。定语从句分为两种:限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。注意关系代词和关系副词在从句中的应用。

  (一)关系代词who,whom,whose,which,that引导的定语从句

  1、The company official _____ I thought would be fired received a raise.

  A. whom

  B. whoever

  C. who

  D. of whom

  (答案:A。关系代词whom在定语从句中做宾语,修饰先行词official)

  2、The investigation , _____ will soon be published, was made by John.

  A. at which the results

  B. the results on which

  C. whose results

  D. at whose results

  (答案:C。关系代词whose 在定语从句中做定语。)

  (二)关系副词 when ,where, why, 引导的定语从句

  1、The time will come _____ man can fly to outer space freely.

  A. that

  B. when

  C. in that

  D. which

  (答案:B。when在定语从句中做状语。)

  2、I will never forget the ten years _____ we both spent in the little village.

  A. when

  B. during which

  C. which

  D. in which

  (答案:A)

  (三)关系代词前带介词的定语从句

  1、Before her marriage, she spent a considerable time in that very part of Shanghai, _____ she belonged.

  A. which

  B. to where

  C. to which

  D. at which

  (答案:C。关系代词which和whom 还可以做“动词词组”后面的前置宾语。这里的动词词组是belong to。)

  2、The United States is composed of fifty states, two of _____ are separated from the others by land or water.

  A. them

  B. that

  C. which

  D. those

  (答案:C)

  (四)非限定定语从句对被修饰的名词起附加说明,或进一步描述或补充。

  这种从句有一定的独立性,即使去掉,主句的意思仍然完整,只是内容相对地不够具体。与主句之间常用逗号分开,所用的关系代词与限定性定语从句基本相同,但不能用关系代词that 引导。

  (1)An Old friend from abroad, _____I was expecting to stay with, telephoned me from the airport.

  A. that

  B. whom

  C. who

  D. which

  (答案:B)

  (2)His brother had become a teacher, _____he wanted to be.

  A. who

  B. what

  C. which

  D. that

  (答案:C。which引导的非限定性定语从句,在从句中做宾语,修饰先行词a teacher)

  (3)He has made another wonderful discovery, _____of great importance to science.

  A. which I think it is

  B. of which I think it is

  C. I think which is

  D. which I think is

  (答案:D。which引导的非限定性定语从句,修饰前面整个句子。)

  (五)“名词(代词)+介词+关系代词”引出,一般是非限定性定语从句。

  We’ve tested three hundred types of boot, _____is completely water proof.

  A. no of which

  B. none of which

  C. some of which

  D. neither of which

  (答案:B。“名词(代词)+of+which(whom)”引起的定语从句常表示部分与整体的关系。)

  三、同位语从句

  考试重点:同位语从句的基本用法;含有suggestion,proposal等词的同位语从句。

  (一)同位语从句的基本用法

  常跟在fact,idea,news等名词的后面,通常用连词that引导。

  1、Would the news _____ he failed to pass the exam bother you?

  A. which

  B. that

  C. of which

  D. on which

  (答案:B。同位语从句。)

  2、I had no idea that you were here. 我没有想到你会在这里。

  (二)如果同位语从句所修饰的先行词是suggestion,proposal等名词的时候,谓语动词用should+原形动词。should可以省略。

  1、My suggestion that we do the experiment again is accepted by them.

  我的再做一次实验的建议被他们所接纳。

  2、His proposal that they(should)challenge the other groups to a friendly competition is praised by the teacher. 他提议他们和别的组挑战,来一场友谊竞赛。这个提议受到了老师的表扬。

  四、状语从句

  考试重点:状语从句的种类及一些连词的基本用法;让步状语从句;unless,supposed (that),whomever,whenever,wherever等连词的含义和用法。

  在主从句中起状语作用的从句叫状语从句。常见的状语从句有时间、地点、条件、原因、让步、方式、比较、目的、结果。

  (一)时间状语从句

  常用的连词有:when,whenever(无论什么时候),since,as,until,hardly…when,no sooner…than,as soon as,before,after,the moment,the minute(一…就…)

  1、No sooner had they got the goods covered up _____ it started raining hard.

  A. when

  B. than

  C. then

  D. after

  (答案:B。no sooner…than 引导的时间状语从句。)

  2、She has wanted to become a nurse _____ since she was a young girl.

  A. long

  B. often

  C. always

  D. ever

  (答案:D。时间状语从句,ever since表示从…以后一直。)

  (二)条件状语从句

  常用if,unless(除非,如果不),as/so long as只要。

  1、_____ I’m mistaken, I’ve seen that man before.

  A. Unless

  B. If

  C. Because

  D. Provided

  (答案:A。unless引导条件状语从句)

  2、_____ you return those books to the library immediately you will have to pay a fine.

  A. Until

  B. Unless

  C. If

  D. Provided

  (答案:B)

  (三)原因状语从句

  常用:because, as, since。如果表示必然的因果关系,一般用because引入;而since表示一种间接或附带的原因;用as 只是提一下。

  1、He cannot go to school because he is ill. 他因为生病不能上学。

  2、Everyone likes you as you are both kind and honest. 人人都喜欢你,因为你既和气,又诚实。

  (四)让步状语从句

  常用though/although,as (尽管),even if/though,however,whatever,wherever,whoever,no matter how/what/who等。

  1、In short, _____ he lives, a man belongs to some society.

  A. whatever

  B. whenever

  C. whichever

  D. wherever

  (答案:D。wherever引导让步状语从句,wherever = no matter where)

  2、_____, you must show your ticket to go into the cinema.

  A. No matter whoever you are

  B. Whomever you are

  C. Whoever you are

  D. No matter who are you

  (答案:C。whoever,引导让步状语从句,= no matter who)

  3、_____ you disagree with her, her idea is still worth considering.

  A. Even if

  B. If only

  C. Instead of

  D. Despite of

  (答案:A。让步状语从句。)

  4、Young _____ he is, he knows what is the right thing to do.

  A. that

  B. as

  C. although

  D. however

  (答案:B。as引导让步状语从句,被强调的部分放在句子之前,进行倒装。)

  (五)方式状语从句

  常用as, just as, as if/though 等词。

  1、_____ was pointed above, this substance can be used as a substitute.

  A. It

  B. That

  C. What

  D. As

  (答案:D。As引导方式状语从句。)

  2、He talks as if he _____ everything in the world.

  A. knows

  B. knew

  C. had known

  D. would have known

  (答案:B。as if(though)引导的方式状语从句,谓语动词用虚拟语气。)

  (六)目的状语从句

  常用so that , in order that, lest (以免, 以防), in case。

  1、I wrote it down _____ I should forget it.

  A. in case

  B. in case of

  C. in order that

  D. for fear of

  (答案:A)

  2、I’ll give you my phone number, so that you can call me when you arrive here.

  我把我的电话号码告诉你,以便你到达这里后可以给我打电话。

  七、结果状语从句

  常用so…that, such…that

  They are _____ students that they all performed well in the nationwide examinations.

  A. so diligent

  B. such diligent

  C. so much diligent

  D. such very diligent

  (答案:B)


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